Why is Sleep Important?

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Do but consider what an excellent thing sleep is…that golden chain that ties health and our bodies together. 

Thomas Dekker 

Sleep…specifically my pillow used to be my most favorite thing to look forward to when I was in my young adulthood. It was such a serine time to just lay in bed, fall asleep and wake up feeling amazing. There was also a time when I would wake up feeling groggy and would mentally have to yank my still sleepy body to get out of bed.

When was the last time you woke up – almost jumping out of bed feeling amazing and ready to take on the day? When was the last time you fell asleep right away or rather quickly when in bed and stayed asleep all night long (without the use of medication or other sleeping aid tonics)? When was the last night you had good quality, felt amazing in the morning, slept 7-8hrs. sleep?

Are you deprived of good quality sleep?

Go through the list below and see if any of the following apply to you? If you want to know a little more, have a click on each question. 

Do you nap often?

Napping has its time and place. Wonderful for children who are developing and growing, good for new mother’s and father’s who may have their sleep schedule revolving around their newborn. If you have jet lag, your circadian rhythm may need some time to adjust … so a nap here or there is okay. 

Is your bedroom dark?

Having a dark room to sleep in is essential for the production of Melatonin. The darker the room the better. Melatonin does not only allow you to sleep better, it is an amazingly powerful antioxidant – and a great fighter of cancer. Even the slightest bit of light will affect your melatonin production. 

Do you sleep with an eye mask?

If your room in not 100% pitch black, it is very beneficial to sleep with an eye mask! No light will interfere with your melatonin production and you will have a more restful sleep and feel better in the morning. Choose a soft eye mask that holds to your head well.  

Does it take you 30 min + to fall asleep?

If your body is in perfect balance it should take you 20 minutes or less to fall asleep each night (This is without the use of medication). 

Do you wake up in the middle of the night?

Sometimes this can be an easy fix, you might be dehydrated and a glass of water will kepp you go back to your restful slumber, however, it can also be your hormones, diet, stress level or perhaps your legs just won’t stop moving. With these later problems the solution is not a sleeping pill it’s a little more than just that – but in the end you will feel amazing!!! 

Do you get frequent bad dreams?

What you eat before going to bed has a effect on how well you will sleep and on what you dream. You don’t need to always have bad dreams, you can make good dietary changes – which will be discussed below – to help you have wonderful dreams. 

Do you have to get up to use the bathroom?

Pregnancy and old age – in some respects – have a different reason as to why an individual may need to go to the washroom in the middle of the night. If you are anyone else, it is most likely that your body is a little off balance (though perhaps if it happened just that one night you went out late with friends or you drank a bit too much water or tea before bed). If your circadian rhythm is balance your digestive system will start shutting down for the night so that the bodies energy can be focused on fixing up and restoring the rest of the body. 

Do you find that you have trouble breathing while asleep – causing you to wake up?

Sleep apnea is a big problem these days, just because you have it does not mean that you need to go on living without sleeping well. There are ways of making sure that you have many restful nights of sleep. 

Restless legs that prevent you from falling asleep and/or cause you to wake up at night?

Restless leg syndrome or Nocturnal Myoclonus though they can be insufferable they can also be made livable and do not need to interrupt you while you are either going to sleep or whilst you sleep!!

Do you take Prescription Medication?

Some medications may disrupt hormones, leach out vitamins and minerals from the body as well as add additional stress to organs. All of this can make it harder to sleep. Find out what vitamins and minerals you may be lacking, what organs any symptoms need extra attention and work with your health practitioner to understand what interactions your medication can have with other products. 

Do you take sleeping pills?

Though they may seem like a godsend they only add around 20 minutes of extra sleep to your night, moreover they place additional strain onto the body, this overtime will throw systems off balance and will cause even more dysregulation with your circadian rhythm. 

Do your sleeping habits affect your mood/energy levels/relationship? 

Sleep affects how you function throughout the day, don’t get enough of good quality sleep and you won’t be the best you can be. You may feel more irritated, you may have difficulty formulating ideas, have a feel of confusion, over time you may begin to experience depression. 

Do you consider yourself a good sleeper?

Do you wake up feeling amazing, energized and with a hop to your step. Don’t say you don’t want to … it is an amazing feeling and you will want nothing more after that. Your body needs time to rest, even if you don’t think it does and it will let you know in time (aka you will not feel your best). 

People who are sleep deprived often have difficulty deciding on the right words to use – difficulty formulating sentences, they have problems with working out ideas and do not do well in coping with situations that change rapidly and dynamically (Holford, P., 2007).

A week of sleep deprivation can result in the alteration of genes in the body, specifically those associated with the circadian rhythm, sleep homeostasis, oxidative stress and metabolism. This further does damage by affecting biological actions that include chromatin modification, macromolecule metabolism, gene-expression management, as well as inflammatory, immune and stress reactions in the body (C.S. Moller-Levet, et al., 2013).

Sleep deprivation can also contributed to many other physical and mental ailments in the body and mind such as;

  • confusion
  • malnutrition
  • low immunity
  • brain fog
  • memory loss/poor memory retainment
  • hallucinations
  • cardiovascular disease
  • liver/kydney dysfunction
  • obesity/weight gain
  • diabetes
  • skin lesions
  • DNA damage

(Perlmutter, D., 2013) (Greenfield, B., 2014).

Just because you are in bed for the recommended number of hours (see chart below) does not mean that you are getting the quality sleep you need to allow your body and brain to recover. Don’t allow your body to suffer and be strained by lack of sleep. Be proactive with your health by making positive changes to your sleeping habits.

Why is Sleep Important?

During sleep is the time when the body is able to repair itself – thus the better quality of sleep one allows for the better their body will function and feel. Hold back on sleep or place your body in such a position that it cannot sleep properly due to various factors (expressed later on in this article in ‘Stress, Drugs and Bad food’) and your body essentially begin to wear down (Junger, A., 2012).

As soon as your body does not get the adequate amount of good quality sleep it needs it begins to malfunction. Insulin resistance, hormonal dysregulation and increased risk of developing cancer are just a few of the issues that a sleep deprived body will face (Gedgaudas, N.T., 2011). Below is a chart that the National Sleep Foundation provides to outline how much sleep an individual requires.

National Sleep Foundation’s Sleep Duration Recommendations :

AgeRecommendedMay be appropriateNot recommended

Newborns

0-3 months

 

14 to 17 hours

11 to 13 hours

18 to 19 hours

Less than 11 hours

More than 19 hours

Infants

4-11 months

 

12 to 15 hours

10 to 11 hours

16 to 18 hours

Less than 10 hours

More than 18 hours

Toddlers

1-2 years

 

11 to 14 hours

9 to 10 hours

15 to 16 hours

Less than 9 hours

More than 16 hours

Preschoolers

3-5 years

 

10 to 13 hours

8 to 9 hours

14 hours

Less than 8 hours

More than 14 hours

School-aged Children

6-13 years

9 to 11 hours

7 to 8 hours

12 hours

Less than 7 hours

More than 12 hours

Teenagers

14-17 years

8 to 10 hours

7 hours

11 hours

Less than 7 hours

More than 11 hours

Young Adults

18-25 years

7 to 9 hours

6 hours

10 to 11 hours

Less than 6 hours

More than 11 hours

Adults

26-64 years

7 to 9 hours

6 hours

10 hours

Less than 6 hours

More than 10 hours

Older Adults

≥ 65 years

7 to 8 hours

5 to 6 hours

9 hours

Less than 5 hours

More than 9 hour

These are of course guidelines to sleep, there are numerous athletes for instance who may require upwards of  9-13 hr of sleep a day. Most importantly even if you are in bed for the recommended 7-9 hours for an adult if the sleep you are experiencing is not of good quality  it will not matter how long you sleep for your body will reap no benefit.

Good quality sleep should ensure the following;

  • mandates how much an individual should eat
  • regulates the speed of ones metabolism
  • manages and controls body size
  • strengthens the immune system
  • enhances creativity and intuitiveness
  • boosts one’s ability to handle and manage stress
  • increasing the ability to process and understand information
  • allowing for the capacity to learn new information
  • memory
  • control and impact genes/genetic code

(Perlmutter, D., 2013).

Good quality, rejuvenating sleep is obtained by having a balanced circadian rhythm, which also requires the body to function optimally and in equilibrium. Sleep has been shown to be a preventative measure against Alzheimer’s Disease. When one sleeps the brain allows for cerebrospinal fluid to flood into the brain and make the channels between neurons accessible, resulting in the reorganization of neural networks and storing newly learned information and experiences. During this process, Alzheimer inducing plaque is also removed from the brain (Dow, M., 2015) (Greenfield, B., 2014). 

If the cleanup of cellular garbage is not able to occur in the brain the mind will grow into a disorganized jumble. This overtime will have a negative impact on the rest of the body as it will affect the function of numerous organ systems (Greenfield, B., 2014). 

Circadian Rhythm 

The circadian rhythm is your sleep cycle. It is part of your body’s clock, informing you when the best time to sleep and wake are. However, like any other system in the body it can get out of balance. 

Regulated by hormones, its efficiency is controlled by the health of the body – if the body is out of balance so will hormone production and in turn the sleep wake cycle will not perform as it should. 

There are a few key player (hormones, neurotransmitters and amino acids) in the circadian rhythm;

Tryptophan

An essential amino acid (meaning it cannot be produced by the body and needs to be derived from the diet) that is the precursor for serotonin. It is required for normal growth as well as balancing nitrogen levels in the body. It crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is helpful in the treatment of depression, nightmares, headaches/migraines, fibromyalgia and mood swings. 

5HTP

5 HTP or oxitriptan, like tryptophan is a precursor for serotonin, however, unlike tryptophan it is just one step away from the conversion to the hormone serotonin (and eventually melatonin). It is also helpful in the treatment of depression, nightmares, headaches/migraines, fibromyalgia and mood swings. 

Serotonin

This neurotransmitter is found within the brain, intestines and blood of the body. It is created in the raphe nuclei – found at the midbrain. Its manufacturing begins when tectum (also in the midbrain) is stimulated by light (deficiency in serotonin often occurs during months when there is less sun – winter months, as well as if the individual in questions spends a large amount of time indoors). Serotonin is a precursor for melatonin, which is the essential sleep hormone. 

 

Melatonin

Secreted by the pineal gland located in the brain, this hormone is essential at regulating the circadian rhythm of the body. Good quality, healthy sleep is strongly dependant on the levels of melatonin in the body. Apart from balancing the sleep-wake cycle it is also essential in regulating  metabolic action and behaviour as well as female reproductive health. 

Melatonin is also an essential antioxidant that aids in the fight against cancer (prevention and recovery). If there any source of light in the room that an individual is sleeping in (and said individual is not wearing an eye mask) an inadequate amount of melatonin will be produced. Over time this can become a severe issue in both depleting the immune system and depriving the body of good sleep. 

Leptin

Hormone the is responsible for the coordination and regulation of hunger, metabolism and the use of food as either fuel or fat. It controls the functioning of the hypothalamus, located in the brain, which is in charge of the bodies rhythmic activities (such as the sleep-wake cycle). When the diet is high in refined sugars, carbohydrates and bad fats (such as the Standard American Diet) leptin becomes less receptive in the brain and this disrupts a many hormonal functions in the body. 

Cortisol

Best known as the stress hormone, it is essential for the health and proper functioning of the body. However, when this hormone is out of balance it can cause serious problems in the body. 

This steroid hormone is manufactured in the adrenal glands (when they become fatigued they can either over or under produce cortisol). Cortisol is essential for the strength, structure and functioning of bones, the nervous and immune systems, stress response as well as the breakdown and utilization of fats, carbs and protein in the body. 

Norepinephrine

This neurotransmitter, which is manufactured in the adrenal glands is responsible in aiding the brain in both focus and the ability to solve problems. It is also essential for it aids in the dilation of the pupils (when it gets darker) which allows for the change of serotonin into melatonin. 

When adrenals are fatigued the levels of norepinephrine are reduced. This subsequently affects the levels of melatonin and thus affects sleep quality. 

All of these hormones, neurotransmitters and amino acids need to be in perfect working order so as to reap the full benefits of a good nights rest. Where does one begin in the understanding of the sleep-wake cycle. It is important to remember that healthy sleep is reliant on melatonin stores, without them proper sleep cannot be had.  Let’s look at what a good quality sleep cycle should be like. 

When cortisol increases in the body melatonin production begins to fall. Cortisol begins to slowly build up again in the body when one is asleep until it reaches its peak, which is about the time that an individual wakes up between 6 and 10 o’clock. This is why one should feel energized, refreshed and alert when they wake up in the morning (Kharrazian, D., 2013). At this point your digestive system starts turning again – you get a natural increase of ghrelin (hunger hormone) and your heart rate increases (Greenfield, B., 2014). 

Cortisol production from that point tends to taper down (if everything is functioning optimally) until it has reached its lowest point right before bedtime. At this time several amino acids, neurotransmitters and hormones are set into gear. Norepinephrine as the day grows darker increases pupil dilation so as to allow for more light to enter into the eye. This action stimulates the conversion of serotonin into melatonin in the pineal gland (Kharrazian, D., 2013) (Dow, M., 2015). If cortisol levels are too high (as a result of stress, diet or drugs) serotonin will not be able to bind to receptors in the brain resulting in less melatonin secretion (Dow, M., 2015). Furthermore, high cortisol levels also prevent the release of growth hormone (essential for repairing the body) leading to premature aging (Holford, P., 2007).  

At around midnight is when melatonin production hits its peak, and allows leptin to enter the hypothalamus – from where it stimulates the thyroid to upregulate thyroid function. This hormone is essential for metabolism and weight control among other things (Greenfield, B., 2014) (Perlmutter, D., 2013). At this time cortisol also begins to slowly rise. When one sleeps, it is cortisol’s job to break down glycogen in the liver so as to provide the body with energy in the form of glucose (Kharrazian, D., 2013). With this action the cycle begins again, with cortisol surging around 6-10 o’clock waking the individual up and beginning a new day. 

Stress, Drugs and Bad food – turning back your C.R.Clock

Think carefully to the last day that you felt truly well, a day that did not feel the strain of fatigue. If it was this morning, or yesterday did you consume foods high in sugar, caffeine and other artificial stimulants? Such substances are incredibly stimulating and hide the feeling of fatigue – though you may need to constantly supply your body with such stimulants in order to get through your day (Fuhrman, J., 2011).

Stress

Stress can be unavoidable, the way one reacts to it can be. Keeping stress and angry with you will make it hard to fall asleep and keep a well functioning sleep cycle. An hour or more before you go to bed, begin to pull away from work, and begin to bring yourself into a calm state of being. Keeping stress with you increases cortisol levels in the body, this begins a long journey of unbalanced hormones and even more stress and the individual will now have to deal with being tired a great deal of the time (Greenfield, B., 2014).

Caffeine

Although caffeine may allow you to go through life with less sleep and still function as a human to some degree, it hinders deep sleep and over time the effect speeds up the aging process and increase the production of the stress hormone cortisol (Fuhrman, J., 2011).

Negative side to caffeine

  • inhibits glucose metabolism
  • increases insulin resistance
  • advance heart disease problems
  • promotes overeating

Sleeping Pills

Sleeping pills, such as Ambien (aka Zolpidem) are prescribed daily to aid individuals suffering from insomnia. However, they are only suppose to provide short term treatment and do not fix the underlying issues of insomnia (Gaby, A.R., 2006). There are many side effects to taking sleeping pills, such as; hallucinations, depression, impairment of driving ability – even the morning after taking the pill, anterograde amnesia, may cause death and does not aid in rebalancing the circadian rhythm (Dow. M., 2015).

Alcohol

Alcohol places a strain on your body, particularly your liver. There may be a grey zone of okay quantity however for the most part ‘If you don’t drink, don’t start for your health’. As your body slows down during sleep and repairs are being made alcohol can have a hand in inhibiting this activity. Moreover, instead of wake up feeling great you often wake up feeling sleepy and sluggish, perhaps even a little bit tipsy. The consumption of alcohol can also impair sleep quality often individuals either do not get enough sleep or simply not enough good quality sleep (waking up frequently at night) (Greenfield, B., 2014).

Sugar

A sudden drop in glucose levels during the night as you sleep can cause you to wake up. The feeling that one might get right after breakfast or lunch especially if that meal was high in sugar and carbs. This is an example of blood sugar imbalance and insulin insensitivity (Murray, M.T., & Pizzorno, J., 2012).

Sugar before bedtime can make it very hard to fall asleep and stay asleep. Moreover, one has the potential, when they do fall asleep to have very bad dreams. If one is already experiencing sleeping problems they are also probably experiencing cravings for sugars sweets and carbs. It is by no means easy but by dialing back on the processed sugar and carbohydrates and filling up on good fats, fiber, protein and lots of veggies blood sugar over time can be balanced and insulin can begin to be more receptive (Gedgaudas, N.T., 2011). 

Natural Alternatives

Supplements
GABA

This wonderful calming neurotransmitter can assist in making one feel a greater sense of relaxation and happiness. When GABA runs low in the body an individual can begin to feel anxious, depressed and/or tense, this over time can result in difficulty with sleeping. GABA aids in moderating breathing and heart rate to the point where the muscles can relax (Holford, P., 2007).

Recommended dosage – 500mg x 2 day

5HTP

This direct precursor for serotonin is a great way to both balance mood and great healthy sleep. Aids in increasing REM sleep by approximately 25%, as well as deep sleep (Murray, M.T., & Pizzorno, J., 2012). May aid certain individuals into dreaming in colour (Holford, P., 2007).

Recommended dosage – 100-300 mg x 1 day // 30 to 45 min prior to bedtime

Melatonin

Although a powerful antioxidant, that aids in the fight of cancer and jet lag, if taken too often it can cause issues with the bodies production of melatonin. If this supplement works incredibly well at putting you to sleep it is a direct indicator that your body is low in melatonin stores. Further down the line, this issue can indicate that perhaps serotonin production is poor (very common with women with high estrogen) (Kharrazian, D., 2013).

This supplement is good to take if you are trying to boost your immune system or as an alternative to a sleeping pill. It is important to work on the root causes of sleeping problems instead of using a bandaid for the solution. 8 mg+ over the course of a period of four days has been shown to influence changes onto the hormone serotonin (Murray, M.T., & Pizzorno, J., 2012).

Recommended Dosage – 1-3 mg x 1 day //before bedtime

Magnesium Citrate

This is a fantastic supplement and sleeping aid, especially for individuals who experience restless leg syndrome. In today’s high strung, high stress society magnesium is often depleted from the body (It is also often lacking in food). Powdered magnesium citrate in some warm water before bed (30 min) is a great way to relax the nerves and the muscles (Lipski, E., 2012).

Follow the instruction on the package/container (approximately 2 tsp, however for starting out it is always good to start with one tsp and work your way up, it may be that the single tsp does the trick to put you to sleep). Powder is best for absorption. I really enjoy the product Natural Calm and find that it works great for putting me to sleep and relaxing me during an airplane flight.

Vitamin B6 (or Potent B Complex)

A deficiency in this vitamin can result in an individual not being able to recall dreams. There can be severe strain on the nervous system as well (Holford, P., 2007). B6 is also essential for the natural secretion of melatonin in the body. Without it little to none will be produced and sleep deprivation will get worse.

Recommended Dosage – 200 mg x 1 day

Zinc

One of the most deficient nutrients in the body today it is essential to make sure that the body receives an adequate amount of zinc. Zinc also aids in allowing individuals to recall their dreams (Holford, P., 2007).

Recommended Dosage – 30 mg x 1 day

Food and Drink
Salt and Water

Without salt the body would not be able to function properly. It is essential for so many functions in the body, sleep being one of them. Salt aids in regulating sleep and is a natural hypnotic.

How to take it: Place a few grains of Himalayan Salt or Celtic Sea Salt on your tongue and after drinking a full glass of water (this cannot be done without water). This is a natural sleep aid (Batmanghelidj, F., 2008).

Milk

A glass of organic, grass fed/pastured milk can be very beneficial as a sleeping aid. Milk is a source of both B6 (required for melatonin secretion) and tryptophan (precursor to melatonin). (Holford, P., & Colson, D., 2010).

Herbals

Herbals that are both nervine relaxants and sleep tonics will aid in relaxing the body and mind as well as getting rid of tension and promoting good sleep.

Teas

Chamomile, Valerian and Passion flower teas work wonders at placing the body in a calm, relaxing state before bed (Hoffman, D., 1990). An equal combination of Hops, Valerian, Passion Flower and Spearmint drunk throughout the day at a cup at a time is a great way to ease the body softly into a relaxed state ready for sleep (Tierra, M., 1998).

Tea Baths

Baths are incredibly relaxing, turn down the lighting or light a few candles and your hormones will start secreting, relaxing the body and placing the individual in a perfect position to go to bed. Add in some Valerian or Lime Blossom tea with a tiny bit of oil (coconut, olive, almond) into the mix and the benefits of the herbs will seep into your skin (Hoffman, D., 1990).

Essential Oil Blends

Herbal oil blends are wonderful to either add to a bath, place in a diffuser or lightly sprinkle onto your bed and pillow. Oils from Clary Sage, Chamomile, Lavender and Mandarin are very sleep stimulating and relaxing.

It may happen an individual has a hard time sleeping as a result of built up anxiety. If this is the case an essential oil blend with Ylang Ylang, Frankincense, Geranium, Vetiver, and Lime can relax the mind and thus the body. This will aid in bringing about sleep. It can also be either applied to a bath, in a diffuser or sprinkled onto the bed and pillow.

Rescue Remedy

 Three sprays of Rescue Remedy are a godsend for anxiety at bedtime. If I am lying awake for far too long, I ask myself, am I in need of water, the washroom or am I anxious. If it is the latter I grab my bedside rescue remedy spray and in a few minutes I am asleep. 

Physical Activity 

Exercise throughout the day aids in improving the well being of an individual as well as improving sleep quality. It is best when partaking in vigorous physical activity to do so in the morning and afternoon, leaving the evening open to relaxation as the body begins to tier and get ready for bed (Murray, M.T., & Pizzorno, J., 2012). 

Prior to bedtime partaking in a gentle walk outside, or a gentle low impact activity such as yoga or tai chi (making sure that the lighting is ambient and relaxing) can aid in both releasing tension and anxiety as well as getting the body ready for sleep. 

When one wakes up in the morning it is important to expose yourself to light, do this by walking outside, sitting in the sun to have your morning tea or coffee or perhaps doing some gentle yoga or tai chi exercises as the sun goes up (Dow, M., 2015). 

References 

Batmanghelidj, F. (2008). Your Body’s Many Cries for Water. United States: Global Health Solutions Inc. 

C.S. Moller-Levet, et al., “Effects of Insufficient Sleep on Circadian Rhythmicity and expression Amplitude of the Human Blood Transcriptome”. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science 110, no. 12 (March 19, 2013).  Online available at PubMed

Dow, M. (2015). The brain fog fix: reclaim your focus, memory and joy in just 3 weeks. London: Hay House.

Fuhrman, J. M. (2003). Eat to Live. Boston: Little Brown and Company.

Gaby, A. (2006). A-Z guide to drug-herb-vitamin interactions improve your health and avoid side effects when using common medications and natural supplements together. New York: Three Rivers Press.

Gedgaudas, N. T. (2011). Primal body, primal mind: beyond the paleo diet for total health and a longer life. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press.
 
Gottfried, S. (2014). The hormone cure: reclaim balance, sleep, and sex drive ; lose weight, feel focused, vital, and energized naturally with the Gottfried Protocol. New York: Scribner.
 
Greenfield, B. (2014). Beyond training: mastering endurance, health, and life. Las Vegas: Victory Belt Publishing, Inc.
 
Hoffman, D. (1990). Holistic herbal: a safe and practical guide to making and using herbal remedies. London: Thorsons.
 
Holford, P. (2007). Optimum nutrition for the mind. London: Piatkus Books.
 
Holford, P., & Colson, D. (2010). Optimum nutrition for your child: how to boost your child’s health, behaviour and IQ. London: Piatkus.
 
Junger, A., & Greeven, A. (2012). Clean: the revolutionary program to restore the bodys natural ability to heal itself. New York, NY: HarperOne, an imprint of HarperCollins.
 
Kharrazian, D. (2013). Why isnt my brain working?: a revolutionary understanding of brain decline and effective strategies to recover your brains health. Carlsbad, CA: Elephant Press.
 
Lipski, E. (2012). Digestive wellness: strengthen the immune system and prevent disease through healthy digestion. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
 
Murray, M. T., & Pizzorno, J. E. (2014). The encyclopedia of natural medicine. London: Simon & Schuster.
 
National Sleep Foundation Recommends New Sleep Times. (n.d.). Available online from https://sleepfoundation.org/press-release/national-sleep-foundation-recommends-new-sleep-times/page/0/1
 
Perlmutter, D. (2015). Grain brain: the surprising truth about wheat, carbs, and sugar–your brains silent killers. Place of publication not identified: Little Brown.
 
Tierra, M., & Dharmananda, S. (1998). The way of herbs. New York: Pocket Books.
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