Turmeric a History
Turmeric or Curcuma longa Linn, the golden yellow spice that was once compared to saffron by Marco Polo was first used by the Vedic culture in India over 4000 years ago. turmeric is native to India and the Southeastern areas of Asia, however today wild turmeric or Curcuma aromatica Linn is no longer present in the wild. This perennial plant is widely cultivated in the tropics, however, India still produces the greatest amount of turmeric root. 60% of agricultural land in India is devoted to the harvesting of spices is taken up by turmeric, 80% is consumed domestically and the rest India exports.
It is in India where it was first used as a dye for textiles. Its earliest noted use as a medicinal plant in Ayurvedic treatment was in 250 BC, where it was used to cure ailments that resulted from poisoning. It would eventually become a very important medicinal herb in both the Ancient Greek Unani and Indian Siddha medicinal practices. turmerics voyage out of India began around 300 BC when Alexander the Great entered diplomatic relations with several Indian states. From there it moved into Greece and further along the Spice Route eventually making its way into China in 700 AD. Turmeric enters Eastern Africa in 800 AD, the west of Africa in 1200 AD and it sailed across the ocean to land in Jamaica in the 18th century.
Turmeric influenced each society it arrived in, differently. Its principle medicinal properties may have in one way or another been translated and passed on to its new users, however, its culinary influence is distinct in each case. Traditionally in India, it was used as a cure-all for coughs, colds, sore throat, asthma, peptic ulcers and dyspepsia. They used it to rid the body of worms and as a topical paste to apply to the skin to reduce inflammation and aid in the healing of measles, chicken pox and smallpox. In the Greek Unani medicinal practice it was used as a blood purifier, aid for the cardiovascular system as well as a cleanser for the liver. Siddha used turmeric for its antioxidant benefits, boosting the immune system and revitalizing the body.
Classification and Cultivation
Turmeric is a rhizomatous herb, meaning it has a progressively growing horizontal underground stem which lays out oblique shoots and roots, and is a part of the Zingiberaceae family of plants (with ginger being a relation). It possesses a long stock that grows between 1-2 meters tall with pointed oblong leaves and flowers that range in colour from yellow to white to pink. Although the plant is a perennial it is grown on rotation with chilli, onion, garlic, sugar cane, garlic and yam, so as to allow the soil to replenish with nutrients. Soils often have a high sand content; though any well fertilized and nutrient-rich soil would do well for the herb.
Turmeric is a herbaceous tropical plant, cultivated at a temperature of between 20-30 degrees Celsius and needing a great deal of water and irrigation. Although it grows very well in the shade, turmeric grows best and more bountifully in a field exposed to high amounts of sun. Turmeric root, the yellow herb is harvested between the months of January-March/April, with early varieties of the herb maturing within 7-8 months, which other varieties take a few months longer and mature within 8-9 months. When its leaves begin to change from green to yellow and the plant as a whole begins to wither it is essentially time to dig the root out of the ground and begin the process of curing the golden little fingerling spice.
Curing a Golden Little Fingerling
Curing is a process by which food is preserved as well as its flavour. Curing turmeric root involves boiling and sun drying the herbs rhizomes. turmeric is boiled to ensure the following;
- diminishing the growth of the fresh rhizome
- hinder the bad odour
- cut down on the initial drying time
- gelatinize the starch in the turmeric to make it firmer
- to allow it’s golden yellow colour to spread through the root more evenly
Turmeric is boiled for between 45 minutes to an hour in either a copper, iron or earthenware vat with enough water to ensure that all the rhizomes are submerged slightly. The drying process takes between 10 to 15 days and involves the turmeric fingers to dry in the sun on bamboo mats. After the sun drying they are essentially ready to either be sold as a whole or ground into turmeric powder.
Turmeric is rich in minerals and incredibly potent in plant secondary compounds. Nutritionally speaking it is a complex herb/spice, on average containing;
- protein 6.3%
- fatty acids 5.1%
- minerals 3.5 %
- carbohydrates 69.4%
- moisture/water content 13.1%
- essential oils 5.8
Turmeric contains traces of various vitamins and minerals, however, it is richest in its sources of manganese, iron, vitamin B6, copper, fibre and potassium. Though the amounts may seem minimal one does not need to take a great deal of turmeric or curcumin to receive the benefits from this golden root.
Turmeric’s secondary plant compounds are very prevalent in its essential oils. It contains approximately 2-5% curcuminoids, though there are some varieties of turmeric that can contain upwards of 9%, as well as a mixture of a-phellandrene at 1%, cineol at 1%, zingiberene at about 25%, sabinene at 0.6% and sesquiterpenes at 53%. These oils provide turmeric and its derivative curcumin their beneficial health properties, making the herb a potent antioxidant, immune booster and inflammation reducer amongst other things.
Turmerics Health Benefits
The health benefits of turmeric are amazing. Turmeric powder has a powerful positive systemic effect on the body and its functioning. Turmeric benefits the skeletal system, lymphatic system, circulatory system and cellular health, turmeric positively affects all these areas by reducing inflammation, providing nutrition, antiseptic and antibacterial benefits all placed together it revamps the body.
Is the principal curcuminoid within turmeric, providing it with its golden yellow colour as well as numerous health benefits. It was first isolated in 1815, from which point studying its individual benefits on the human body began. It has been shown to be advantageous to wounds both aseptic and septic as well as being beneficial for the protection of cancers of the stomach and mouth. It is high in anti-inflammatory activity, aiding in reducing joint pain, eliminating intestinal gas (and preventing its formation) as well as aiding in nerve dysfunction and inflammation. Curcumin promotes the increase of bile secretion from the liver as well as increases the activity of the pancreas and the enzymes it produces.
Alzheimer’s is a progressive neurodegenerative disease which is defined, amongst other things, by cognitive decline, depreciation of daily life and changes in behavioural patterns. Approximately 6% of women and 5% of men over the age of 60 are affected by it worldwide. Over 1000 scientific studies have been conducted on the effects of curcumin – the active component in turmeric – on Alzheimer’s. The benefits curcumin has shown in reducing the symptoms of Alzheimer’s and preventing it altogether include;
- Increasing the ability of macrophages to eliminate/uptake plaque – boosting the immune system
- Curcumin has a lipophilic characteristic that allows it to move through all cell membranes delivering benefits within the cells and possess anti-proliferative actions on microglia. A small amount of curcumin affects neuroglial proliferation and differentiation.
- Aids in reducing inflammation of nerve cells, which is the chronic issue of Alzheimer’s
- Aids in the elimination and formation of free radicals in the body
- Eases symptoms of Alzheimer’s that are attributed to oxidation and inflammation
- Protects brain mitochondria from oxidative damage
- Aids in the removal of heavy metals (cadmium and lead) from the body and aids in detoxification. This reduces the toxic load for Alzheimer’s patients and aids in the reduction of their symptoms.
- Aids in balancing cholesterol levels
All across the board curcumin and turmeric alike have shown to be very beneficial for patients with Alzheimer’s disease, even with the spice/herb is taken in small doses, as a food source such as in curry or in larger doses as in the form of the more potent curcumin.
Turmeric and curcumin respectively have been used in the treatment of oral pain and inflammation for centuries through Ayurvedic medicine. As some dentists have taken a turn in the past decade to a more holistic approach to use and study of turmeric and curcumin’s effect on oral health more scientific research has emerged detailing the benefits on this golden powder on the health of gums and health.
- Topically applied to gums to reduce inflammation and swelling
- Pain is relieved by rinsing the mouth with turmeric powder
- Turmeric powder has shown to strengthen gums and aid in the elimination of gingivitis and periodontitis
- Aid in the prevention and removal of plaque from teeth
- A natural antiseptic and antibacterial agent
There is no toxicity with the use of turmeric (however it may have interactions with certain medications, such as blood thinners so speak with your family health physician before supplementing with turmeric or curcumin) so its benefits cannot be overlooked. oral health, after all, is the first step to overall wellness and well being within and outside of the body.
The antioxidant power of turmeric is incredibly powerful. Its ability to fight off free radical damage, reduce oxidative stress and bring down inflammation make it a potent aid in the fight against and prevention of Cancer.
- Because it aid in reducing inflammation and pain curcumin and turmeric alike work somewhat similarly to a corticosteroid, however instead of preventing white blood cells from coming to the affected area they allow them to come and aid in their battle against unwanted cells – such as tumours
- Has been shown to prevent breast cancer cells from spreading to the lungs
- Aids in the prevention of childhood leukemia
- Curcumin has been shown to be potentially effective against the prevention of multiple myeloma which has been shown to stop the growth of new blood vessels in tumours
The herb’s ability to eliminate heavy metals from the body and support detoxification aids in the reduction of the body’s toxic load – a cleaner body, with more oxygen available and higher antioxidant count allow for a heightened defence and greater prevention of cancer as well as aid in its elimination.
Even if one is partaking in chemotherapy it is beneficial to add turmeric or curcumin to your post-surgery, surgery and recovery journey. The slightest bit of help to the body will make a world of difference, so throw this delightful golden yellow herb into your daily regiment and start reaping the benefits.
A. (2017, March 22).Turmeric Farming Info Guide for Beginners. Available online from http://www.agrifarming.in/turmeric-farming/
Chaturvedi, T. (2009). Uses of turmeric in dentistry: An update.Indian Journal of Dental Research,20(1), 107. Online Available at PubMed.
Dalby, A. (2004).Dangerous tastes: the story of spices. London: British Museum Press.
Hishikawa, N., Takahashi, Y., Amakusa, Y., Tanno, Y., Tuji, Y., Niwa, H., Murakami, N., & Krishna, U.K. (2012). Effects of turmeric on Alzheimer’s disease with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.AYU. 33 (4) pages 499-504. Online Available at PubMed.
Hugar, S.S. & Metgud, R. (2015). Turmeric in Dentistry.International Journal of Science and Research. Vol 4, Issue 6, pages 2553-2557
Krishnaswamy, K. (2008). Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.Asia Pac J Clin Nutr;17(S1):265-268. Online Available at PubMed.
Kuttan, R., Bhanumathy, P., Nirmala, K., & George, M. (1985). Potential anticancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa).Cancer Letters,29(2), 197-202.
Mishra, S., & Palanivelu, K. (2008). The effect of curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer’s disease: An overview.Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology,11(1), 13. Online Available at PubMed.
Ruby, A., Kuttan, G., Babu, K. D., Rajasekharan, K., & Kuttan, R. (1995). Anti-tumour and antioxidant activity of natural curcuminoids.Cancer Letters,94(1), 79-83. Online Available at PubMed.
Singletary, K. (2010). Turmeric.Nutrition Today,45(5), 216-225.
Sood, S., & Nagpal, M. (2013). Role of curcumin in systemic and oral health: An overview.Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine,4(1), 3. Online Available at PubMed.
Turmeric.C. (n.d.). Available online from http://www.greekmedicine.net/A_Greek_and_Unani_Herbal/herb.php?id=10
Turmeric. (n.d.). Available online from http://www.whfoods.com/genpage.php?tname=foodspice&dbid=78
Yadav, R.P., & Tarun, G. (2017). Versatility of turmeric: A review the golden spice of life.Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry; 6(1): 41-46.