Acidfoods produce sulphuric, phosphoric and hydrochloric acid requires neutralizing with bodies own minerals.

Acid Reflux – a condition in which stomach acid is regurgitated into the esophagus, causing heartburn.

Adaptogen – A herb that adds to the body’s natural reply to physical and emotional stress. They do not influence mood, instead they assist the body in times of stress and anxiety as well as aiding in the fight against fatigue. They also help in re-balancing the adrenals glands (which are responsible for the production of numerous hormones).

Alkaline – foods provide minerals which are used to neutralize acids in the body.

Amino Acid Therapyas muscles work amino acids are broken down. Nitrogen is released and needs someplace to go. Muscles produce alanine, which allows nitrogen to attach itself to it. Alanine carries nitrogen back to liver – converted in to urea and excreted through urine.

Anabolism – reactions that store energy by forming high energy compounds. Combine simple molecules together to form complex compounds (ex) photosynthesis.

Anion –a negatively charged Ion, more electrons.

Antibodies – also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein manufactured primarily by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

Antioxidant – natural compounds that aid in protecting the body from destructive free radicals; which may cause damage to DNA and cell structure and function, lower the immune system, etc. (example) vitamins a, C, E, Zinc and Selenium as well as CoQ10, glutathione peroxidase and melatonin.

Anthocyanins – part of the flavonoid group of secondary compounds. Principally found in honey, fruits, vegetables, olive oil, nuts and cacao. They are rich antioxidants and aid in fighting off free radicals in the body.

Apoptosis –a form of cell death in which a progressed sequence of events leads to the elimination of cells without releasing harmful substances into the surrounding area. Eliminates old/unnecessary/unhealthy cells. AKA: programmed cell death and cell suicide.

Apples– one of the first fruits to have been cultivated and have between 7000-8000 different varieties ( a small percentage of which are commercially available). They are a great source of fibre, vitamin C and pectin. Quercetin (flavonoid antioxidant, possesses; anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-allergic properties) is the most abundant phytonutrients in apples. Apples are great antioxidants, aid in balancing blood sugar levels and protecting against cardiovascular disease.


Banana – a great source of B6 (aids in digestion), Manganese, Vitamin C and Potassium. A medium-size banana has about 400 mg of Potassium, making it great for lowering blood pressures & aids in keeping blood cholesterol levels under check. The fibre content will help stabilize blood sugar levels, keep you full for a longer time and help to regulate your bowel movements.

Bee Pollen –which is 40% protein, is the nutrient-dense food of young bees. This pollen, which when first harvested is sticky comes from the stamen (which is the male part of a plant). An energy tonic in Traditional Chinese medicine. Bee pollen continues 22 amino acids, is a rich source of B Vitamins as well as vitamins c, D, E and lecithin. Bee pollen aids in boosting the immune system, boosting energy and endurance. It can also be used to benefit against allergies and asthma.

BerberineHerbal berberine sulfate complex supports secretion of bile and acid in the elimination of yeast and pathogenic microbes. Currently the predominant clinical use of berberine includes bacterial diarrhea, intestinal parasite infection.

Bile – made by the liver stored and concentrated by the gallbladder.

Bilirubin –is released into plasma complexed with albumin. In liver bilirubin is changed to bilirubin diglucuronide and bilirubin sulphate. These molecules end up in bowel via bile. The bilirubin diglucuronide is reduced to urobilinogen and excreted into urine and stercobilinogen [can also manifest] and will be excreted in the feces.

Black Currant – early use was medicinal – to ale sore throats – it is also an outstanding source of Vitamin C (More than a lemon) as well as a source of Iron, calcium, Vitamin A and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Black currants bring up the immune system, stimulate the circulatory system and promote a healthy and balanced digestive system. They are also very beneficial for the kidneys and eyes.

Bolus – when mushed up food leaves the mouth and begins its journey down the esophagus it is called (medically) bolus.

Buffer –is a chemical system that maintains a relatively constant pH even when strong acids or bases are added. Buffer solutions contain either a weak acid and a weak base. Ad one of their salts buffers not only established a pH, but provide ions to support conductivity.

BuffersThey help keep pH at a constant rate. A buffer solution maintains a constant pH upon addition of small amount of acid or small amount of base. They resist changes to overall pH. They consist of weak acid/base conjugate pairs. 3 buffer systems help maintain blood pH in body. [example] Carbonic Acid/Sodium Bicarbonate SystemHCl + NaHCO3 —> H2CO3 + NaCl. Help keep pH at a constant rate. Set of chemicals that can keep the pH of a solution stable by alternately donating and accepting ions that contribute to pH.

Buffer system – sets of chemicals that can keep the pH of a solution stable by alternately donating and accepting ions that contribute to pH. Overall, they help maintain pH at a constant rate. There are three buffer systems that help maintain blood pH. One of them is the “Carbonic acid/Sodium Bicarbonate system”. It is a conjugated acid/base pair. However, if for instance, the blood system receives too many consecutive doses of either an Acid or a base the system will go through a change in blood pH {reg pH between 7.35 and 7.45}


Cacao Powder– a powerful antioxidant (helps in fighting free radical damage in the body – which injure cell membranes and DNA). Help in reducing inflammation and aid in reducing plaque within arteries. Great source of Magnesium (aids in muscle and nerve function) and Iron (red blood cell production). Cacao is also great for boosting your mood (releases “feel good” neurotransmitters)

Cantaloupe (Netted melons)– contains a high amount of vitamins c and A, as well as being a source of Potassium, Copper, Folate and Vitamins B6, B3, B1. When the seeds are eaten they also provide an adequate source of omega 3 (as alpha-linolenic acid). There is a decrease of metabolic syndrome (high blood fat, sugar and pressure) with cantaloupe consumption, as well as decrease oxidative stress on account of its antioxidant properties (this also aids against inflammation).

Carob – comes from a pod of an evergreen tree which is native to the Mediterranean. It is roasted and ground into a fine powder which resembles the taste of chocolate (and is sometimes used as its substitute). Although it is high in sugar, it also contains an almost equally high level of fibre – manning it great for regulating blood sugar levels. High in Omega 6, Folate, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium and Phosphorus. it is a great substitute for cacao – especially for individuals who cannot consume it. Carob also aids in improving digestion, reducing cholesterol, and fight osteoporosis.

Catabolism –reactions that release energy by breaking chemical bonds. Break complex compounds into simple molecules (ex) Krebs cycle.

Cation –a positively charged ion, more protons

Cellulose –from plant cell walls. Bonds between glucose and B1;4. cannot be digested by humans. Is a polysaccharide. Cannot be digested because — the acetal linking is BETA which makes it different from starch. The above difference is why it cannot be digested. Humans are unable to digest cellulose because the appropriate enzymes to break down the beta acetal linking are lacking. Undigested cellulose is the fiber which aids in the smooth workings of the intestinal tract.

Chyme – As food moves from the stomach to the small intestine it swishes up against the intestinal walls and and villi move it along thoroughly mixing it; at this point in the foods journey it is called chyme.

Cirrhosis – scarring of the liver. it cannot make protein, fight infections, clean blood, digests food = lowers liver function – can lead to liver cancer.

CleanseA process which removes undesired substances from the body without directly increasing natural detoxification (ex: candida or parasite cleanse).

Coconut Water– very high in Potassium (read above for benefits) and antioxidants. Coconut water, like regular water does wonders for dehydration related ailments (headaches, dry skin, dry lips etc.

Coconut oil– a great antioxidant, a good source of Vitamin A & E (great for Skin/Hair). It is anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and antiviral. Coconut oil contains Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) which help in powering up metabolism.

Colostrum– a milk-like secretion from the breasts, present during the first day or so after delivery before milk appears rich in protective factors. Contains 2x more protein than mature milk, due in large part to the higher fraction of immunoglobulins and lactoferrin (which promotes the growth of the intestinal epithelium, protects against pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses and promotes the growth of Bifidobacteria, as well as reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines.

Covalent Bonds –atoms are bound by shared electrons. If the electron is shared equally between the atoms forming a covalent bond, than the bond is said t be Non-polar. When they are not shared equally electron are attracted to the atoms with the greatest electrical pull producing a polar covalent bond, such as water.

Cucumbers– one of the oldest cultivated vegetables, originating in India. They have a very high water content (approx. 96%). There are about 100 different varieties of cucumbers 2/3 for eating 1/3 for pickling. Cucumber’s secondary compounds lariciresinol, pinoresinol, and secoisolariciresinol have been shown to aid against the onset of cardiovascular disease as well as different cancers (breast, ovarian, uterine, prostate). They are a high source of Vitamin K as well as a good source of molybdenum (promotes sulphur balance in the body, antioxidant benefits, proper functioning of the nervous system) and pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5, energy production, fat metabolism).

Cyclooxygenase enzymes – there are two enzymes COX1 and COX2, they are responsible for mobilizing the development of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and levuloglandins. Their processes are inhibited by aspirin and other anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by olive oil due to the presence of oleocanthal.


DetoxA process which increases the body’s natural process of detoxification.

DetoxificationThe elimination of accumulated toxins from blood and tissue. Detoxification is needed for optimal health and healing. Normally the body has the ability to detox itself, however an increase in toxicity exceeds the body’s ability to detoxify. An inability to naturally detoxify results in accumulation of toxins, imbalances in the body and illness.


Electrolyte –salts, specifically Ions. Means that this ion is electrically charged and moves either to a negative (cathode) or positive (anoide). Are essential in the body because they are what your cells use to maintain voltages across their cells membranes and to carry electrical impulses across themselves to other cells.

Electronegativity –A measure of an atom’s ability to pull electrons away from other atoms. The tendency of an atom to attract electrons. Some atoms have electronegativity than others. In general electronegativity increases as you go across the periodic table. It also decreases as we move down the P.T. basically as atoms size increase and the protein-electron relation is harder to keep.

Enzymes –made by the pancreas and lining of the digestive tract and other areas of the body. Enzymes are protein molecules required for chemical reactions in the body. There are hundreds of thousands of different enzymes.

Esophagus – the tube that passes from the mouth to the stomach


Fermentation – a metabolic action that turns sugar into acid, a gas, or alcohol. In the body it can be more putrefaction than fermentation – which is the decay or rotting of organic matter in the body.

Fibre – keeps everything moving {contents of the digestive tract} absorbs toxins {bile and cholesterol} —-> get rid of these feeds good bacteria.

Flavones – secondary compound/metabolite. Antioxidant functions in the body, especially in terms of cancer prevention as well as its treatment. Has also been shown to be very beneficial against coronary heart disease.

Flavonols – Secondary metabolite and a very potent antioxidant. Their highest volume is usually on the skin of fruit or the the outer leaves of green leafy vegetables (bring GMO or spraying plant with chemicals may alter this significantly). Yellow/white onions are the best source; leeks, blueberries, apricots and tomatoes are a few other common edible plants that are high in flavonols.

Free Radicals – atoms with one (or more) unpaired electron in the outermost shell. They bring about damage by taking electrons from neighbouring atoms that make up the body. They cause damage to DNA and cell structure, they lower the immune system and increase the risk of degenerative diseases. They are manufactured by exposure to toxic chemicals, volatile organic compounds, radiation, pollution, as well as by a few metabolic processes within the body.

Folic Acid –is a B vitamin/water-soluble vitamin B9. Folic acid, itself not biologically active, its biologically importance is due to tetrahydrofolate and other derivatives after its conversion to dihydrofolic acid in the liver.


Glycerine (or Threonine) –is an amino acid, a building block for proteins it is not considered an “essential amino acid” because the body can make it form different chemicals. Body uses glycine to make proteins, transmission of chemical signals to brain.

Glycemic Index –the rate a particular food will raise blood sugar levels. Measured off of glucose, whose rate is 100.

Glycemic Load –Is the glycemic index multiplied (x) by the amount of available carbohydrates, which is the amount of starches in the food. [aka] how much carbohydrates (x) how fast it will be absorbed

Glycogen –storage form of glucose in humans, more branched than starch. Stored in liver and is used to maintain blood glucose levels.

Golgi apparatus –stack of flattened membranous sacs with lots of vesicles,modifies and packages proteins,receives transport vesicles from the ER,produces different types of packages. 1)secretory vesicle: cell makes a package and sends out PM for export. 2)cell membrane component: vesicles with protein/phospholipids 3)lysosomes


Hepatitis – swelling of the liver (liver stops working) and can lead to scarring (cirrhosis). Caused by viruses or your body mistaking attacks its own tissue.

Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) – produced by parietal cells in the lining of the stomach. Breaks apart protein chains. Kills microbes, reduces/eliminates poisons, parasites, and bacteria that are brought in by the food we eat.Initiates breakdown of protein and fat {starts dissolving food in stomach}. Activates protein-digesting enzymes (pepsin) ——> starts as pepsinogen

Hydrogen Bonds –A weak bond between two molecules resulting from an electrostatic attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegativity in another. A weak type of chemical bond formed when a slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule. A chemical bond consists of Hydrogen bonding to two electronegative atoms.

Hydrogen Bonding –hydrogen bonding differs from other uses of the word “bond” since it is a force of attraction between a hydrogen atom in one molecule and a small atom of high electronegativity in another molecule. That is, it is an intermolecular force, not an intramolecular force as in the common use of the word bond. When hydrogen atoms are joined in a polar covalent bond with a small atom of high electronegativity such as O,F, or N, the partial positive charge on the hydrogen i highly concentrated because of its small size. If the hydrogen is close to another oxygen, fluorine or nitrogen in another molecule, then there is a force of attraction termed a dipole-dipole interaction. This attraction or “hydrogen bond” can have about 5% to 10% of the strength of a covalent bond. Hydrogen bonding has a very important effect on the properties of water and ice. Hydrogen bonding is also very important in proteins and nucleic acids and therefore in life processes. The “unzipping” of DNA is a breaking of hydrogen bonds which helps hold the two strands of the double helix together.

Hydroxybenzoic acid – found naturally in St. john’s wort, gooseberries, olive fruit, vanilla and alga. It is an antioxidant and low in toxicity.

Hydroxycinnamic acid – secondary plant metabolite, functions as an antioxidant and has anti-inflammatory benefits. Aids in weight-loss and has been shown to show benefits for individuals with diabetes.

Hydroxyphenylacetic acid – naturally found in olive fruit, cacao beans, oats as well as mushrooms. It is essential to several body functions and cellular pathways.

H.Pylori– is a bacteria that enters your body and live in your digestive tract. They have the potential to cause ulcers to form in the lining of the stomach or in the duodenum of the small intestine.


Ionic Bonds –Type of chemical bond, strong mutual attraction between ions of opposite charge. Atoms are bonded together by the attraction between oppositely -charged ions. Transfer electrons.

Intra-Abdominal Pressure –pressure that builds in the stomach as a result of gas that is formed by the digestion, fermentation and purification of food.

Isomers: Structural –state that structural isomers have the same formula but different structure (eg. glucose and fructose). Compounds that have the same molecular formula but different 3D arrangement. hence they have different properties from one another. they do not have identical properties.

Isotope –Forms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons their atoms carry. We refer to isotopes by MASS NUMBERS, which is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.


Jaundice –yellowing of body due to too much bilirubin. Which is the yellow chemical in hemoglobin. If the liver cannot handle replacing old red blood cells bilirubin levels rise. Can happen because of blood disease genetics. Liver damage – hepatitis cirrhosis.


Kinase – [checkpoint gene product] this class of enzyme can activate other molecules by transferring a phosphate group to them. When DNA is broken or incomplete, the kinases activity certain proteins in a cascade of signalling events that ultimately stops the cell cycle or causes the cell to die


Lactose Intolerance: State that is due to a decrease in lactose production. Adults can often not digest the lactose. Lactose will accumulate in the small intestine resulting in an influx of fluid (osmotic effect) and bacterial action results in abdominal distention, nausea, cramping and diarrhea. The reason why lactose cannot be digested is that the body does not make sufficient stores of the lactose enzyme that is needed to break it down.

Lampante -in Italian means ‘lamp oil’ and it is used to describe olive oil that is produced from olives that have fallen to the ground or from olives that are overripe, as well as oil that has gone rancid due to being stored for too long resulting it it being treated and refined.

Lavender– fragrant and slightly spicy & bitter. It reduces anxiety and emotional stress (used as a nervine and antidepressant tonic), assists in improving sleep regulations and cycle as well as aid in eliminating headaches. It works on the lungs and the liver.

Lectin –It is a protein marker found on food that can react with A, B, O antigens found in blood. 95% of lectin are destroyed during digestion (Or) not absorbed by the body at all. It is a sugar-binding protein.Lectins found in animals (humans) and plants (grains, legumes, seeds and nuts). They have many protective functions in the body – recognizing pathogens and controlling protein levels in blood. Antibodies are created in response to lectin and lectin looks, often times like other parts of our body therefore the same antibodies that were created to go attack the lectin will actually go launch attacks your own body. This is where autoimmune illnesses arise.

Lemon – is a high source of Vitamin C as well as a good source of folate and pectin. The secondary compounds found in lemons have antioxidant, anticancer and antibiotic effects ( they include flavonol glycosides and kaempferol). Limonoids a compound found within lemons (as well as limes) has been found to fight against cancers of the mouth, skin, breast, lungs, colon and stomach. Lemons have also been noted to reduce inflammation within the body; thereby being beneficial for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

Lemon Balm– from the mint family. It is used for digestive issues (bloating, intestinal gas and a troubled tummy), menstrual cramps, headaches and tooth pain. Lemon balm is also very calming, helping to relieve anxiety, sleep issues, and restlessness. Lemon balm is also a very powerful antioxidant (high in Quercetin).

Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) – a ring of tightly closed muscles at the intersection of the esophagus and the stomach. It should only open under two circumstances; 1) Food/drink is entering into the stomach (the chewing and swallowing of nutrients), 2) the release of gas from the stomach.

Lysosomes (white blood cells)-like to consume bacteria.Contain digestive enzymes (produced by ribosomes) packaged up by Golgi apparatus. Digestive foreign substances and worn out or non-usable material within the cell.


Mediterranean Diet – traditional dietary lifestyle of the countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. It is characterized by the high consumption of vegetables and extra virgin olive oil, a moderate consumption of protein – primarily in the form of fresh local fish. The benefits that stem from this diet include lower levels of cancer, Alzheimer’s and heart disease.

Metabolism –the sum of all chemical activities in a living organism

Mint – there are about 2 dozen species and hundreds of types of mint. In ancient Rome it was believed that mint exhilarated the mind. Mint is a source of manganese, copper and vitamin C. Mint is beneficial for the stomach, shown to relieve symptoms of irritable bowel disease. Aiding digestion and reducing colonic muscle spasms. The secondary compound Perillyl alcohol in mint has exhibited benefits against reducing the growth of tumors of the pancreas, mammary and liver. Mint also protects against cancers of the digestive tract, lungs and skin. The essential oils in mint have beneficial anti-microbial properties. Mint is also an anti-inflammatory plant.

Monounsaturated –only 1 (one) double bond between carbons. Most common = oleic acid = olive oil W-9 (omega 9).

Monounsaturated Fat – fatty acid that is composed of one double bond between a carbon atom along the fatty chain. Sources include; olive oil, almond, avocado, macadamia.


NeuroTransmitters –are the chemicals which allow the transmission of signals from one neutron to the next across synapses. They are also found at the axon ending of motor neurone, where they stimulate muscle fibres. Produced by glands such as pituitary and adrenal glands.

Nonelectrolytes –have molecules. They do not ionize in water. Their solutions do not conduct electricity.

Nut and Seed Milks – Cashew, Almond, Hemp, Hazelnut, Brazil Nut, Sunflower (or a mix of a few) – are great alternatives to Milk and Soy. Alkalinizing and rich in nutrients. They are best prepared at home, as store-bought brands are filled with artificial additives and preservatives.


Oleic Acid – a fatty acid with 18 carbons in the chain. A monounsaturated fat. One double bond is found between carbons nine and ten along the chain. Found in olives, peanuts, canola, pecans, macadamia oils.

Oleocanthal – olive oil acts like ibuprofen in the body, affecting the same pathways. They both block cyclooxygenase enzymes in the prostaglandin-biosynthesis pathway which aids in reducing inflammation across the body.

Omega 3 (w3) – a unsaturated fatty acid. The intake of w3 aids the body in the making of series 3 prostaglandins, which assist in the deterrence of the negative effects of series 2 prostaglandin.

Omega 6 (w6) – a polyunsaturated fatty acid. The intake of w6 aids the body in the manufacturing of prostaglandin 1 and 2. Excess prostaglandin 2 can bring up inflammation in the body.

Olive Sting (Burn) – A burning sensation left at the back of the throat after the consumption of Extra Virgin Olive Oil. It is a result of oleocanthal a secondary compound found in Olives that acts similarly to ibuprofen (affecting the same pathways in the body to reduce inflammation). The olive sting is also a defining characteristic of high quality olive oil.

Orange –native to China and northern India. An excellent source of Vitamin C. Oranges are also a good source of fibre, folate, Vitamin B1 and pantothenic acid. The secondary plant compounds in oranges have potent health benefits – specifically in lowering high blood pressure, balancing cholesterol, and working as an anti-inflammatory within the body.

Oxidation/Oxidize – when the increase of oxygen, the reduction in hydrogen or the addition of an electron results in the release of energy.

Oxidation –energy is released upon oxidant. Electrons are lost as are hydrogen ions. Oxygen is gained.


Plasma Membrane –Phospholipids bilayer studded with proteins. Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails. Barrier for cell content (plasma membrane). Membrane proteins have many functions, enzymes, receptors, transport etc. Also contains “Cholesterol” glycoproteins & glycolipids.

Pancreatic Bicarbonate –made by the pancreas, raises pH of contents leaving the stomach

Parietal Cells – epithelial cells that are located in the lining of the stomach wall. They release HCl and Intrinsic Factor.

Parsley– an umbelliferous plant native to the Mediterranean. It has an incredibly high amount of vitamin K and vitamin C. As well as a good source of Vitamin A, folate and Iron. Parsley has two essential secondary compounds; volatile oils ( such as; myristicin, limonene, eugenol, and alpha-thujene) and flavonoids ( such as; apiin, apigenin, crisoeriol, and luteolin). The flavonoids in parsley act as very potent antioxidants which aid in preventing oxidative damage in and to cells as well as increasing antioxidant levels in blood. The folic acid in parsley helps maintain a healthy heart (aiding in the prevention of strokes, blood vessel damage, and atherosclerosis. It is also contains anti-inflammatory compounds that has been shown to reduce inflammation in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

Pasteurizationtemperature is increased for a short duration of time on mental heat ( 5 seconds to 30 min) to kill enzymes in foods. Foods are made safe as the heat denatures the enzymes of the microbes that may contaminate it.

Peach –native to China and are best consumed in season and local (as they are best to ripen on the tree – they will be more nutrient dense this way). A high source of Vitamin C and A, peaches are also a good source of Potassium, magnesium, and Iron. Peaches are high in antioxidants and the secondary plant compound polyphenols – which work at combating cancer and fighting free radicals and oxidative damage to cells. The consumption of peaches has also been shown to be beneficial as a preventative and aid in the treatment of metabolic syndromes (such as weight gain, imbalanced cholesterol, diabetes and inflammation).

Pear – a good source of fibre, copper, Vitamin C & K. There is a possibility that pears may aid in the prevention of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Fibre content in pears has been shown to aid in the prevention and treatment of imbalanced cholesterol and digestive imbalances as well as lowering the risk of cancer.

Peristalsis – a series of wave-like contractions that move food down the digestive tract. in the intestine peristalsis mixes and shifts chyme, moving and mixing it back and forth so as to absorb nutrients from it into the bloodstream through the small intestine walls. it concludes in eh large intestine where water from the undigested food is absorbed into the body (bloodstream). Remaining waste product is excreted from the body through the rectum and anus.

Peroxisomes –look identical to lysosomes/membrane sacs of oxidase enzymes /detoxify poisons such as alcohol and formaldehyde /break down free radicals (highly reactive chemicals) /numerous in liver and kidney /replicate by pinching in half

Pepsin – the stomach manufactures a hormone called Pepsinogen. When it comes in contact with HCL it turns into Pepsin. Pepsin is essential to the breakdown of protein.

Pineapple– a very rich source of vitamin c, as well as copper, manganese, and Vitamins B6 & B1. It contains a high amount of bromelain (however canned, cooked or juiced pineapple will not have any, or at least very little) which is beneficial for digestion. Pineapple also has anti-inflammatory properties, it is a potent antioxidant, boosting up the immune system. The manganese and B1 (Thiamin) in Pineapple helps to bring up energy production and promotes endurance.

pH –a measure of the number of H+ ions in a solution; the measure of acidity it is a logarithmic scale – 3 in 10 X more acidic than the pH of 4.

Phenols – commonly found in nature, these secondary plant compounds are found in tyrosine (an amino acid), in hormones such as epinephrine and serotonin. Phenols are potent antioxidants that have cancer-preventing properties. Found in vanilla, wintergreen, olive fruit, mint and thyme.

Phenylalanine –is an essential amino acids (protein building block). Found in food as body cannot make it itself.

Polyunsaturated –more than one double bond. Some cannot be made by body.

Probiotics -feed off of pre-biotins —> such as; fructo-diglosaccharides.Are friendly bacteria that we want pressures in the digestive tract in large numbers. Yogurt products contain millions and billions.

Prostaglandins – they are short-lived hormone-like factors, which are manufactured by the body from essential fatty acids (EFAs) and enzymes. There are several different types of prostaglandins, the most relevant are PG1 (rest and digest), PG2 (fight or flight) and PG3 (similar to PG1 and works harmoniously with it, it also inhibits the release of arachidonic acid).

Protease — digestive enzymes, take it immediately at the end of the meal, providing the best results. Take better prior to meal to start digestive juices flowing periods

Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) -a group of drugs that reduce the secretion of stomach acid. They have been shown to greatly reduce the production of stomach acid – which in turn would make acid reflux worse.

Pyloric Sphincter -a ring of smooth muscle at the intersection of the stomach and the duodenum of the small intestine.


Reduction –the energy store; electrons and hydrogen ions are gained, whereas oxygen is lost/released.

Red Blood Cells – live for 120 days and get recycled, we constantly need to repair ourselves. There are no instructions for the repair molecules, as there are nuncles therefore when it is unable to repair itself it degrades and is recycled. It is a Prokaryotic Cell.

REVERSE OSMOSIS: the process of recycling water. (for example) desalination , recycling water salt.

Ribosomes –Not membrane bound. Made of protein and rRNA. Sites of protein synthesis. Found in 2 locations within cell. They can be free or they can be part of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough because of ribosomes).

Rough endoplasmic reticulumstudded with ribosomes. Synthesizes proteins more rER indicates more protein synthesis. Also manufactures membrane lipids


Salt –Compound that dissolves easily in water and release ions other than H+ and OH-

SAM-E cycle (s-adnosymethionine) –natural occurring chemicals in the body. Used to improve depression/joint health/liver problems. Is a common cosubstrate involved in methyl group transfer.

Saturated Fatty Acids – do not have double bonds between carbon. Solid at room temperature. The longer the chain the stronger the bond. Animal products and tropical oils. Can have a metal and carboxyl end.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulumfunctions in the lipid metabolism and detoxification of drugs and pesticides. Liver and steroid hormone-producing cells (ex. testes/ovaries) have a lot of smooth ER.

Solubility Rule –likes dissolve likes. Polar lipids dissolved in polar compounds and non-polar lipids dissolved in nonpolar compounds. However polar lipids cannot dissolve in nonpolar compounds and vice-versa. Ionic compounds dissolve a covalent compound you simply move the bonds further away.

Spinach – in the 16th century in Britain was used for medical purposes for its mild laxative effects (as it contains oxalic acid). Organic spinach contains very high amounts of Vitamin K and A. Spinach is also an excellent source of Manganese, folate, magnesium, iron, copper, Vitamins B2 & B6 as well as vitamin E & C, calcium and potassium.

Standard American Diet (SAD) – A diet that is high in animal fats (intensive livestock operations). High in unhealthy fats: saturated, hydrogenated – a great deal of deep-fried foods. Low in fibre and high in processed foods. This diet contains a great deal of refined sugars. It has been shown to have many negative implication on physical health and mental wellbeing.

Starch –alpha glucose is the monomer unit in starch. As a result the bond angles in the alpha linkage, starch amylose forms coil spring.

Stomach Acid – A combination of Hydrochloric acid and Pepsin. They break down food into smaller particles and make it ready to be assimilated into the gut.

Sulphur containing –(cysteine – methionine) generally considered non-polar hydrophobic. Methionine one of the most hydrophobic amino acids and is almost always found in the interior of the protein Cysteine is ionized to yield thiolate anion, uncommon to find it on the surface of a protein.


Terpenes – an aromatic, unsaturated, hydrocarbon, secondary metabolite. Prevalent in essential oils that are extracted from the plant (cannabis, olive fruit). They are natural pesticides, as high levels can be toxic to certain insects.



Valence electrons –the electrons of an atom found in the outermost (outermost energy level) shell. They have a potential to bond.





Zymogen –inactive enzymes. Cells produce enzymes in inactive precursor farms that remain harmless until they are switched on [involves cutting a peptide bond or removing a few amino acids] allowing the enzyme to be introduced to their intended target. (ex) trypsinogen & prothrombin.

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